Saturday, September 29, 2018

Best Free Methods to Convert NSF File to PST File

This blog is written to provide the best free methods to Convert NSF file to PST file in Outlook 2016, 2013 and earlier without Lotus Notes installation when you want to switch from IBM Lotus Notes to MS Outlook.

Generally, we use email clients for sharing our emails in our profession or in our daily life. However, there are certain situations or you can say circumstances in which you have to switch from one email client into the other one. So, here I am going to discuss the same matter “how to convert NSF files into PST files”. The NSF file format is of IBM/Lotus Notes whereas PST file is in Outlook. Here, the scene will be if you want to change email client from IBM/Lotus Notes to Outlook.

Now, have look at best free methods which I am going to discuss them in this blog.

 NSF to PST Converter

Two Simple Methods to Convert NSF File to Outlook PST File

1. Manual Method: In the manual method first you have to take the backup of NSF files. Afterward, you have to export NSF files into an intermediate CSV file. Then, these intermediate CSV files are moved to Outlook.

2. Third – Party Tool: By using a third-party tool you have to do fewer efforts. Just download the tool and follow the few instructions. Your conversion is done in very less time.
I will discuss these methods in detail after discussing the situations which create the requirement to convert NSF files into PST files.

Convert NSF File to PST File - Manual Methods vs Third Party Tool

Features Manual Methods Third Party Tool
Need IBM Notes App. to Convert NSF file X
Need Outlook App. for Export NSF file into PST file X
Export NSF file with attachments to PST format
Converting NSF file email to PST file process Complex Simple
Convert NSF file to MBOX file X
Cost X

Situations Tend to Migrate from IBM/Lotus Notes to Outlook

Here, I am mentioning the some of the situations in which user need to migrate from IBM/Lotus Notes to Outlook.

  • When you change the company for a job might be the email clients is different from the previous company. Likely IBM/Lotus Notes was your previous email client and currently, you are using Outlook.
  • Outlook is more affordable than the Lotus Notes.
  • In the Outlook, multiple users can be configured at the same time.
  • The Outlook is more likely preferable over the other email clients because it has a very interactive user interface. If you compare the Lotus Notes is more typical for the novice users.
So, let’s see how to migrate from Lotus Notes to Outlook.

Manual Method to Convert NSF into PST Files

As I discussed in the above section the manual method is divided into the two phases. These are as follows:

I. Exporting NSF Files into CSV

Follow the following steps.

  1. Open the IBM Lotus Notes application.
  2. Navigate to File and click on Open.
  3. The Open Application window will be pop-up.
  4. Find the required NSF file and click on Open. The selected NSF file will be opened.
  5. Go to File menu, and click on Export.
  6. Under the Export message box, mention the file name, file location, and save as type.
  7. Choose the Comma Separated Value type for the saving.
  8. A dialogue box CSV Export gets displayed. Choose the options which are required. Then click on OK.
  9. The exported data will be saved in CSV file at the desired location.

II. Importing CSV File into Outlook

Now, follow the below steps:

  1. Open MS Outlook application.
  2. Navigate to File menu, and click on Open & Export, and then click on Import/Export option.
  3. An Import and Export Wizard dialogue is displayed. Choose the option Import from another program or file. Click on Next.
  4. Choose the Comma Separated Values as file type and click on Next.
  5. Hit the Browse button and choose the location for created CSV file. Click on Next. 
  6. Choose the Outlook folder for saving the exported file and click on Next.
  7. Mark check on the checkbox under the Import a file dialogue box and click on Finish.
  8. The importing of data from the CSV file to MS Outlook is done.

The above method has some limitations which like it a time-consuming process. It will convert single NSF file at a time, you have to repeat the process for the other files. It is not sure the entire data will be converted to Outlook or not. To overcome these demerits you can try the third-party tool.

Third-Party Tool to Convert NSF into PST Files

You can opt for third-party NSF to PST Converter tool. This tool overcomes the demerits of the manual method. It can convert all your data from Lotus Notes to Outlook in few clicks. There is an option for selecting more than single NSF file at a time for the conversion. It can also safely eliminate encryption from NSF files before NSF to PST conversion.


Hope this blog is helpful to you. Here, two methods are discussed manual and third-party tool. The use of a third-party tool is suggested because the manual method has some limitations.

Best MBOX Viewer Tool of 2018 - Reviews of 3 Windows MBOX File Viewer

Windows MBOX Viewer is complete free MBOX File Viewer tool that allows to view or open all MBOX file ( Created by Thunderbird, Apple Mail, Eudora, Postbox, Netscape, Entourage, PocoMail, Spicebird, Google Takeout, Spanning Backup, Backupify, and Opera ) on Windows platforms.

In today's world, emails are considered and preferred the way of communication between organization. There are many email clients like Mozilla Thunderbird, Mac Mail, SeaMonkey, etc which provides their services to send, receive and manage. Their email clients save their data(emails, attachments, formatting, images, etc) in MBOX file(mailbox format), which can we exported if required.

 MBOX Converter

However, what if you have MBOX file containing all the backup of your emails and attachment but you don’t have any compatible application to access the MBOX file. Or if you are an Outlook user and your client have sent you file in MBOX format. In this kind of scenarios, an MBOX File Viewer becomes very handy. So let’s discuss the best three MBOX File Viewer.

Brand Aryson MBOX Viewer Sysinfo MBOX Viewer Kernel MBOX Viewer
Rating 5 star 4.5 star 4 star
Product Detail
Price Free Free Free
Latest Version
Technical features
Open and View MBOX files
Supports Corrupt MBOX files
Preview emails and attachments
Compatible with all formats of MBOX files
Maintains the hierarch X
Keep your data intact
Simple GUI X
Compatible with all MBOX formats
Windows Compatibility
Mac Compatibility X X X
Live chat X
24*7 Live Assistance   
Technical Support   


If does not have compatible application installed on your system or want a easy way to open MBOX files, then you can give a try to MBOX file viewers. These software are very well capable to open corrupted MBOX files as well. So these are the best three MBOX file viewer which are safe and reliable. Now it’s upto you which one you want to use. Hope this will help you in one way or another.

Thursday, September 20, 2018

How to Find Outlook Archive Folder (OST & PST) Location on Windows 10/7/8/Vista/XP

This blog explains the default location of your Outlook Archive Folder (OST & PST) on Windows 10, 7, 8, Vista & XP, it also describes the right solution to find your Outlook Archive Folder in Outlook 2016, 2013, 2010 & 2007.

What is the Outlook Archive Folder (OST) File?

OST stands for Offline Storage Table, it also knows as Outlook Archive Folder (OST) file and gets automatically generated by Microsoft Outlook in Windows OS to create a faultless connection with Microsoft Exchange server. The OST file permits the user to access Microsoft Exchange Cached or Offline mode so that a user can access their data even when the Exchange server is Offline. Every time when a new mail is received by Exchange server, Microsoft Outlook will automatically synchronize OST file with the MS Exchange server which ultimately helps the user to work in offline mode even when internet connection or Exchange server gets down.

What is the Outlook Archive Folder (PST) File?

PST stands for Personal Storage Table, it is also known as Outlook Archive Folder (PST) that stores your personal email message, task, notes, task, calendars etc in MS Outlook.

Where are the OST Files Located?

Microsoft Outlook OST file is an offline storage table which saves all the data(emails and attachments) in the local machine. These are the location OST file we were able to locate on a local machine in Windows and Mac OS.

1. Outlook OST files default location on Windows Vista, 7, 8 and 10 OS

Outlook 2010: Documents\Outlook Files
Outlook 2007 or earlier version: C:\Users\UserName\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Outlook

2. Outlook OST files default location on Windows XP OS

MS Outlook 2010: My Documents\Outlook Files
MS Outlook 2007 or earlier versions: C:\Documents and Settings\UserName\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook

3. Outlook OST files default location on Mac OS

Outlook 2011 database file:
~/Documents/Microsoft User Data/Office 2011 Identities/Main Identity/
Outlook 2011 storage folders:
~/Documents/Microsoft User Data/Office 2011 Identities/Main Identity/Data Records

Where are Outlook Archive Folder PST File Located?

The default location of Archive Folder PST File

C:\Users\%username%\Documents\Outlook Files\

The default Location of Archive Folder of Outlook on Windows XP and previous versions.

C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\
C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\My Documents\Outlook Files\

The Default Location of Archive Folder of Outlook on Windows Vista, Windows 7, 8, and 10

C:\Users\user\Documents\Outlook Files\archive.pst

How to Find Outlook Archive Folder OST File Location?

If you were still unable to locate OST file, then follow these steps to and find the files in no time.

1. For MS Office Outlook 2016/2013

Step 1. Open Outlook application and go to “File” on the toolbar. Doing that will open the Account Information window.
Step 2. From there go to the Account Settings >> Account Settings options and tap on it.
Step 3. Now navigate to the Data file tab to preview the location of other data files. To know the location of the OST file, select the file and click “Open File Location”
Step 4. OST file location window will pop up.

2. For MS Office Outlook 2010

Step 1. Tap on File Tab in the Ribbon and choose Info tab from the “Menu.”
Step 2. Tap on “Accounts Settings” tab, after that tap on “Account Settings” again.
Step 3. From the drop-down list, choose Microsoft Exchange Server, and then tap “Change.”
Step 4. Tap “More Settings.”
Step 5. In the Advanced tab, tap on “Offline Folder File Settings.”

3. For Microsoft Office Outlook 2007

Step 1. Launch MS Outlook.
Step 2. In the “Tools” menu, click “Account Settings.”
Step 3. From the list select “Microsoft Exchange Server”, and then tap “Change.”
Step 4. New "Change Email Account" dialog box will pop up.
Step 5. Tap “More Settings”, "Microsoft Exchange" dialog box will appear.
Step 6. Choose the “Advanced” tab, that will change the "Microsoft Exchange" dialog box.
Step 7. Tap the “Offline Folder File Settings.” New "Offline Folder File Settings" dialog box will appear.
Step 8. The dialog box is having OST file location in the File field.
Step 9. OST file is usually located at
» C:\ Documents and Settings\ username\ Local Settings\ Application Data\ Microsoft\ Outlook\ outlook.ost
Step 10. Copy the OST file path.

4. For Microsoft Office Outlook 2003

Step 1. From the Tools menu, select “Email Accounts.”
Step 2. Tap “View” or change an existing email account, and click “Next.”
Step 3. Tap “Microsoft Exchange Server”, and then “Change.”
Step 4. Now tap on “More Settings.”
Step 5. In the “Advanced” tab, select “Offline Folder File Settings.”

How to Find Outlook Archive Folder (PST ) File Location?

Outlook 2007 and previous
File-> Data File Management…
Outlook 2010, Outlook 2013 and Outlook 2016
File-> Account Settings-> Account Settings-> tab: Data Files

What if OST files become inaccessible? 

If your OST files become inaccessible or get corrupt, then you need to recover or repair your OST file. There are two methods that can be used to recover damaged OST file: Manual and Automata. As an IT expert, I will suggest not to use the manual method because it has few drawbacks like it needs a deep technical knowledge and is a very lengthy process. Whereas, Automata methods is safe and quick. I would like to recommend an OST Recovery tool which is 100% safe, fast and reliable. It can even save OST files into PST, MSG, DBX, EML, MBOX & Archive.

What if PST files become inaccessible? 

If your PST files get inaccessible due to any reason then you can need to repair them or restore them. There are two processes to open your corrupted PST file one is the Manual method or second is the alternate solution like Outlook PST Recovery solution.


These are the methods to find your Outlook Archiver Folder (OST & PST) files in Windows and if you are unable to access your OST and PST file, use the recommended tool to repair it.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Top 5 Best SQL Recovery Tool to Fix SQL Database Recovery Pending

In this blog, we will discuss why we need an SQL Recovery Tool and the best 5 SQL Database Recovery Tool that will help you to fix SQL Server Database Recovery Pending when your database unable to access with SQL Server after recovery.

SQL server is the most advanced server which is used by multiple high-end organization to manage their data safely. SQL server permits users to search, store and recover any data which they want. But, in some cases, the SQL server can also get damaged or corrupt because of virus attack, system or network failure, or storage corruption. Which leads corruption of MDF file.

If the MDF file turns corrupted, you will face different error messages like Msg 823/824/825/5172 error in SQL Server, etc. In a situation like this, you will need an SQL Recovery Tool which can recover all your corrupted data.

There are so many SQL Recovery Tool for fixing SQL Server Database Pending in the online market, but no all of them are well designed. So, which tool you should choose among all of them. To help you out I have filtered the best three SQL Database Recovery Tool which provide elite performance and provide the best user experience.

Best SQL Recovery Tool for SQL Database Recovery Pending Fix

1. Aryson SQL Database Recovery

Among the top five SQL Recovery tools for fixing SQL Server Database Pending error, Aryson SQL Database Recovery is the most trustworthy tool that is designed with the sole purpose of to repair corrupted MDF /NDF files without any file size limitation. This tool is designed with the advanced deep algorithm to scan and handle the different level of corruption easily. One can easily try the tool with the help of a free demo version to experience and analyze the tool’s abilities.


  1. Repair and recover both corrupt MDF/NDF files.
  2. Recover tables, views, triggers, default, programmability, and other functions.
  3. Two recovery modes to handle the different level of corruption(Standard & advanced.)
  4. Uphold both ROW and Page Compression.
  5. Allow users to migrate the recovered data to the new SQL database.
  6. Also, allow users to preserve the files in the SQL scripts.
  7. Runs smoothly on MS SQL Server 2000, 2005, 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2016.
  8. Compatible with all versions of Windows OS.

Cons- None.

2. Sysinfotools SQL Database Recovery

Another premium SQL Database Recovery tool is from Sysinfotools to easily fix recovery peding mode in SQL Server Database. It is very simple and easy to understand. It is also a very powerful tool to recover damaged or corrupted SQL. It’s Standard Mode and Advanced Mode are very well capable to recover data from the different level of corruption.


  1. Repair corrupt MDF/NDF files of SQL Server database effortlessly.
  2. Accuracy recovery of objects like tables, views, stored procedure, triggers, programmability, functions, and default.
  3. Saves recovered data either in SQL Server database format or Script format.
  4. Supports SQL Server ROW-compression and PAGE-compression.
  5. Provide the preview of the recovered data before saving them.
  6. Also supports BLOB, image, XML and large page data.
  7. Fully Compatible with Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, 2003, XP and 2000
  8. Support SQL Server version: 2000, 2005, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2016.

Cons- Doesn't allow to save data in Demo Version.

3. Diskinternals MSSQL Recovery

This tool provides complete Microsoft SQL database recovery in one package for SQL Database Recovery Pending. It can easily recover all the corrupted or damaged file of SQL server databases. It is designed to scan the MDF files along with NDF files, then recover maximum possible data, with minimum data loss in file corruption.


  1. Support recovery of MDF and NDF files unto the size of 16TB.
  2. Repair MDF files on corrupted devices, like floppy disks, Zip disks, CD-ROMs, etc.
  3. Easily repair a batch of MDF files.
  4. Integrated with Windows shell (right-click) menu of Windows Explorer easily.
  5. Support drags & drop operation feature as well.
  6. Support command line to perform the task.

Cons- Costlier than the rest of SQL Database Recovery Tools.

4. Recovery for SQL Server

Recovery for SQL Server permits fast SQL database recovery pending without altering the parent data file. Its friendly interface takes almost no time to perform SQL database recovery. It can also recover database objects like Tables, Stored Procedures, Views, triggers, etc.


  1. Recover MDF and NDF database files easily.
  2. Also recover database objects like Tables, functions, views, Triggers, etc. 
  3. Support MS SQL Server 2008R2, 2008, 2005 and all below editions
  4. Work with all the windows

Cons- It is a great tool to use but slower than the rest of the SQL Database Recovery Tools.

5. DataNumen SQL Recovery

DataNumen SQL Recovery tool is another an advance tool to fix corrupted MDF and NDF database files. It scans the .MDF file and .NDF files then it recovers all the information from the database. It recovers the maximum possible and there is no data loss in the process.


  1. Recover all the structure and data from the corrupted SQL server. 
  2. Restore deleted records and sparse column as well.
  3. Allow multiple database file recoveries. 
  4. Support SQL Server 2005 & all above versions
  5. Run well with all the versions of windows.

Cons- Slower and costlier from above-mentioned SQL Database Recovery Tools.

Database files are very important and essential for any organization because they store tons of all the important records. So corruption in SQL server database can create a problematic situation for the company. All the above-mentioned tools are very well capable to recover or repair the MDF and NDF files easily. If you are in trouble than use any of the above-mentioned tool to recover all your corrupted files.

Friday, September 7, 2018

Top 4 Best NSF Converter Software - Reviews of 2018

In the blog, we will discuss all about the NSF files, why we need a conversion of Lotus Notes NSF files to file formats of other email clients such as Outlook, Thunderbird, Windows Live etc. and the best four NSF converter software tool that can be used for migrating Lotus Notes to other email clients.

IBM Lotus Notes is a most widely used email client across the globe. It is used in various organizations for business communication. Lotus Notes store all its mailbox database in the form of NSF files. Users find using Lotus Notes a bit complex and tedious. That’s why they wish to switch from Lotus Notes to other email clients such as MS Outlook, Thunderbird, Windows Live Mail, Apple Mail etc. But, in today’s world, there are numerous alternatives available and one must go with the best option available. Outlook is the most popular email client with advanced features and prolonged security. This is the reason users prefer to migrate from Lotus Notes to Microsoft Outlook i.e. they wish to convert NSF to PST file format. So, let’s know some more about it.

 NSF to PST Converter tool

Reasons to convert Lotus Notes NSF files to Outlook PST file format

Here I am listing some common reasons due to which users wish to migrate from Lotus Notes to Outlook by converting NSF to PST.

  • Lotus Notes is having less user-friendly and complicated GUI than MS Outlook. Outlook is suitable for both naive as well as technically sound users. For non-technical users, it is difficult to work with Lotus Notes.
  • Outlook requires less maintenance cost.
  • Outlook is featured with prolonged security than any other email clients.
  • MS Outlook allows users to configure multiple accounts at a time.
  • Outlook is cost-effective in comparison to Lotus Notes.

Why we need NSF converter software?

As we discussed above that users wish to convert NSF to PST for migration of Lotus Notes to Outlook because working with IBM Lotus Notes is a tedious task. For this conversion, there are manual approaches. But, using manual methods can be risky as these methods are lengthy, time-consuming and complex to perform. So, in that scenario, we need an NSF converter to successfully convert NSF to PST file format.

All right, now let’s get down to the business. As we all know that there are an uncountable number of NSF converter software tools to perform NSF to PST conversion and if you landed on this page then I hope you are looking for best. So, let’s not waste any time more and let’s dig in the four best NSF converter software Tool that I found when I encountered the same issue.

01. Aryson NSF to PST Converter

The NSF to PST Converter offered by Aryson is a very authentic and reliable tool. It is loaded with advanced algorithm to export Lotus Notes database to Outlook. The interface is so user-friendly that even a non-technical user can easily use the application. Some of its advanced features are:

  • Exports all the Lotus Notes database to Outlook email client.
  • Allows selecting single as well as multiple files at a time.
  • Creates a LOG file of NSF to PST Conversion at a location defined by the user.
  • Smart search and preview feature.
  • No file size limitation.
  • Before NSF to PST conversion, remove encryption from NSF files.
  • Demo version offers to save first 25 emails of NSF to PST file format.

02. SysInfoTools NSF to PST Converter

SysInfoTools NSF to PST Converter is another very efficient tool for NSF to PST conversion. It is one of the known NSF converter software that instantly exports Lotus Notes database to Outlook without wasting time. Also, it is equipped with advanced features and intuitive GUI that makes even novice users work easily with this application.

  • Successfully converts NSF to PST without making any alteration in data.
  • Uses Data range feature to exclude undesired features from NSF files.
  • For resultant Outlook PST files, it enables custom folder mapping option.
  • Auto search and the smart preview feature for NSF database.
  • Allows single as well as multiple files.
  • Interactive GUI.

03. NSF to PST Converter from NSF Converter Tools

With this NSF to PST converter, it becomes very easy to switch from Lotus Notes to Outlook. It is well equipped with the advanced algorithm. Also, it keeps focus on data integrity keeping original data intact. It consists of some special features like saving DocLink and Internet Header options. Some of the features of this awesome NSF to PST Converter software are:

  • Performs Batch conversion by including single as well as multiple NSF files.
  • Remove encryption from encrypted NSF files.
  • An option of saving DocLink and Internet Header is available.
  • Converts NSF files created from any version of Lotus Notes.
  • Demo version NSF converter software is available .
  • Supportive to all Windows OS.

04. eSoftTools NSF to PST Converter

This NSF converter tools from eSoftTools is also a good software for NSF to PST conversion. It extracts data easily from Lotus Notes and migrates to Outlook. It is facilitated with Folder wise conversion of Lotus Notes to Outlook. Here are some of its features:

  • Exports database from NSF files such as emails, calendars, events, journals etc.
  • Prevents original data from alteration keeping data integrity.
  • Supports all the Lotus Notes versions.
  • Performs Folder wise conversion.

Bottom Line

In my opinion, the above mentioned NSF software is the best for the people who want instant conversion of Lotus Notes to other email clients such as Outlook. This software converts NSF to PST effectively. You can also use some other software which is good to go but with a lot of competition and too many products with similar features, it is very difficult to find a reliable and authentic NSF to PST converter software. I have shared my personal experience after doing a lot of R&D and I recommend the above-mentioned software.

I hope this article would help the people who wish to migrate from Lotus Notes and are looking for an NSF converter. I have shared what I feel. If you have any suggestions regarding the same, feel free to comment.

Monday, September 3, 2018

Best PST Merge Tool to Merge PST Files without Outlook

This blog summarized why we need a PST file Merger, Benefits of PST Merge Tool, Why We Use PST Merge Tool Against Manual Method and Process to use PST Merge Tool.

Microsoft Outlook is one of the most popular email clients which is used by most of the organization whether they are big or startups. Also used for personal use by many individuals to handle their emails, contacts, calendars, tasks etc and Outlook stores all the data in the PST file format to withstand slow performance or data corruption.

Why we need a PST file Merger?

Most of us create multiple files unmindfully to save our data. Things get complicated overtimes and we need to merge them and keep them in one file. These are the reason one should consider to merge their PST files.

  • To organize multiple PST files.
  • It is easy to convert a single PST file rather than numerous files.
  • To avoid data loss or unintentional deletion.
  • Easily share single file rather than sharing one by one. 

That's why it is better to have a single file instead of multiple files as a single file is easy to handle, easy to convert, easy to share.

Benefits of PST Merge Tool

Key features of PST mergers that everyone needs to know:

  1. Merges Multiple PST Files - Using any PST merger you can easily combine multiple PST file at once. That helps you save you valuable time as well as efforts.
  2. Keep data Integrity in check - While merging PST files these tools keeps your original data safe from any kind of corruption. 
  3. No limitation over file size - There is no upper or lower limit of the file size so you can merge any PST file of any size without any hassle.
  4. Eradicates repeated emails - This premium feature makes it more useful to the user as it removes all the duplicate emails in an instant. You can turn it off if required.
  5. Quick and safe - These tools are very quick and safe to use. They can merge or join multiple PST files within few seconds. 
  6. Easy GUI - They are very easy to use as they have the simplest and easy to understand GUI. 

Why We Use PST Merge Tool Against Manual Method?

Although the manual method is a free way to merge PST files it comprises many drawbacks like:
  • It is not very safe to merge PST files as many times it corrupts the parent PST files.
  • Can not combine multiple PST files at once.
  • Time-consuming
  • Requires somewhat technical knowledge.

So to avoid all the trouble just use this PST Merge Tool which is very easy to use and is 100% safe. This tool is the perfect solution to merge multiple PST files into one without any data forfeit. It’s super user-friendly GUI allows the user to employ with ease. It also merges all the attachments with affecting anyone one of them.

The Process to use PST Merge Tool

Follow these steps to merge multiple PST files:

  • Download the PST Merge Tool from the website. 
  • Launch the PST Merge software.

  • Select multiple PST files that you want to merge into a single file.
  • Select any location to save the merged PST file.
  • Now select merge PST files option and click Next
  • Also, you can encrypt the PST file by applying a password if you want to.
  • Merging process would begin, it would take a few minutes for successful completion. And lastly click close.

    Final Verdicts
    Almost all the Outlook user needs a merge once in a while. As managing a single PST file is much easier than handling a bunch of PST files cuz they can create unwanted problems at times. Both manual and professional method can merge PST files but professional method wins easily over manual methods. As it is quicker and safer with respect to manual methods which is very tiresome, time-consuming and lengthy.